The M60A1 was in production from October until May  and was extensively used by the US Army and Marine Corps as well as being widely exported to foreign governments. A total of 7, M60A1s all variants including E60A were built. During the early s there was some debate regarding the future of main tank weaponry, largely focusing on conventional kinetic energy rounds versus missiles.
In the early s it was generally accepted that the maximum effective range of the M68E1 gun was between and meters. But the development of a main-battle tank variant was bogged down by having too many design proposals. Mounted on former M60 hulls, they were to provide test beds for the evaluation of the Shillelagh weapon system. Although this system was the preferred armament for the MBT, by late problems with the XM13 missile required that the program be reorganized. The missile was reclassified as an applied research project and it was obvious that there would be some delay before it would be available for service.
The possible delay was not as serious for the MBT since the program was limited to conceptual design and component development. The requirements also differed for the tank because of its ability to carry a much heavier weapon system. Several backup weapons were also under consideration and concept studies were prepared showing their application to the MBT concepts.
The mm gun-launcher XM81 also was considered without the missile depending only on the combustible case conventional ammunition. It was expected that the Shillelagh or some other missile then could be introduced at a later date. The mm gun M68 as standardized for the M60 tank was considered as an alternate armament system. It had the advantage of being immediately available and its ammunition was already in production.
Of the several turrets drafted, one of the earliest was the driver-in-turret integrated fighting compartment. This design was further developed using the MBT Another proposal was a more compact turret design of the T95E7. The Type A turret would be constructed based on the T95E7 turret and then further modified and produced as the Type B standard. The Type C turret was essentially a larger M Sheridan -style turret. A mock-up of this turret was built, but the design was never seriously considered and soon abandoned. All of these conceptual variants were referred to as the XM On 10 January , the Army reviewed all three variants and selected the Type B variant for further development.
Initially two Type A turrets were built in These developmental tanks were designated as the M60A1E series. This flaw was often catastrophic as it set off the projectile in the barrel as it was fired. As the M60A1 hull became available in , it was decided to upgrade these prototype vehicles to the M60A1 standard.
Initial plans called to retrofit the turret of every M60 with the new A2 turret, but the continual technical and reliability difficulties with the dual purpose gun caused this to be abandoned. This was evaluated due to several earlier faults noted in the M60A1E1's main gun. Compared to the Shillelagh system, the use of the mm gun increased the overall tank weight by about pounds to between 43 and 44 tons.
A mock-up of this design using the Type C turret was constructed. All variants of this series underwent evaluations and trials at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds. It consisted of a large disk with a narrow channel in the center with each crew member in the turret having their own hatch. The gunner and loader were located to the right and left of the gun, respectively, and the commander was in a turret basket up and behind the main gun. As a result, each crew member was effectively isolated from one another with the gunner and loader separated by Shillelagh missiles in their storage position.
The commander was in the rear compartment under a large redesigned cupola, which somewhat negated the low profile silhouette of the turret. This system could be used by the gunner to engage targets with unguided M rounds while the vehicle was in motion, but the tank had to remain stationary when firing and tracking an MGM missile.
Four M smoke grenade launchers were mounted on each side of the turret bustle. A basket was fitted to the rear of the turret to stow the spotlight when not in use. Late production versions replaced the bore evacuator with the Closed-Bore Scavenger System CBSS , a compressed air system that pushed the fumes and gasses out of the muzzle when the breech was opened.
Many of these hulls were later upgraded to the RISE standard. The gunner aimed the cross-hairs in his direct telescopic sight at the target and fired the missile. After acquiring a target a small charge would propelled the missile out of the barrel, the missile's solid-fueled sustainer rocket then ignited and launched the Shillelagh. For the time of flight of the missile, the gunner had to keep the cross-hairs pointed at the target. A direct infrared beam missile tracker in the gunner's sight detected any deviation of the flight path from the line-of-sight to the target, and transmitted corrective commands to the missile via an infrared command link.
The MGMA was stabilized by flip-out fins, and controlled by hot gas jet reaction controls. This weapon system had several drawbacks. First the gunner had to keep the target in the crosshairs of the sight during the entire flight time of the missile. Furthermore, the M60A2 could not fire or track a missile while moving. Until the missile reached this range it flew beneath the tracking system's infrared beam and could therefore not be guided by the infrared command link.
Also minimum range was slightly above the maximum effective range of the M60A2's conventional unguided munition, this created a dangerous gap area that could not be adequately covered by fire known as a "dead zone". It was also discovered that structural cracks in the barrel occurred after several missile firings. This defect was traced to a flaw in the longitudinal key, which fitted into a keyway inside the gun barrel. It was determined that a less deep key would significantly extend the service life of the barrel.
The Missile Control System was also very fragile owing to its dependence on vacuum tubes which often broke when firing the gun. Finally a Shillelagh missile was considerably more expensive than the M round. Though the vehicle was one of the most technologically complex of its era, this also contributed to its failure, largely due to difficulties with maintenance, training, and complicated operation. The M60A2 proved a disappointment, though its technical advancements would pave the way for future tanks. Its intended successor, the MBT , was canceled in and its funding diverted into the conceptual development of the XM1 Abrams.
Due to the rapidly developing advancements in anti-armor capabilities and solid state electronics of the s, along with the general dissatisfaction of the M60A2, an upgrade of the M60A1 was needed. In work began on the M60A3 variant which featured a number of technological enhancements and increasing the turret armor. The hydraulic fluid was replaced with a non-flammable one. The M60A3 tank was built in two configurations.
The M60A3 uses a laser based rangefinder and the solid state M21 ballistic computer. The M10A2E3 ballistic drive is an electro-mechanical unit. The commander had an M36E1 passive periscope and the gunner an M32E1 passive sight. This sight allows the gunner to see through fog, smoke and under starlight conditions without the aid of an IR searchlight. This system provided improved first round hit capabilities.
The first M60A3s were assembled at the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant in February  where the first of a low-rate of initial production quantity of M60A3s were produced through October  with fielding to Army units in Europe starting in May Italy, Austria, Greece, Morocco, Taiwan and other countries upgraded their existing fleets with various E60B component upgrades under several FMS defense contracts with Raytheon and General Dynamics during the mid to late s.
These were essentially M60s with minor modifications requested by approved foreign purchasers. Some of the modifications included removal of the M19 cupola, different models of machine guns, electronics, fire control systems or radios, external armor plates, smoke launchers and power packs. The average age of these tanks was 16 years and an expected peacetime service life of 20 years.
Tanks located in Korea were inspected and sold to Bahrain and Taiwan. Egypt inspected tanks at Fort Hood and 91 at Fort Knox and tentatively selected of those. An additional inventory of tanks from the CONUS M60 fleet were available at the same unit price for other approved purchasers. The United States chose not to pursue further upgrades to the M60 series after because of its near-term replacement by the Army with the M1 Abrams starting in Together with the large number of M60 MBTs still in foreign service and a large US Army surplus inventory, several upgrades for the tank were offered starting in There are three basic approaches to upgrade decisions for the M60MBT.
Some countries, such as Taiwan and Jordan, have sought to modernize the M60 as a frontline main battle tank. Turkey is seeking a middle-ground, keeping it useful as it develops more modern designs. Other countries, such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Thailand are modernizing their M60 fleets for counterinsurgency-type operations. While the market for M60 modernization is somewhat limited, because the tank is generally operated by poorer countries or has been relegated to secondary tasks, other companies have come up with more advanced upgrade solutions.
Additionally, several countries also funded their own design upgrades, notable examples are the Magach , Sabra and Phoenix variants. The vehicle was developed as a private venture for the export market and was never evaluated for US military service. The upgrade offered to increase the protection, firepower and mobility for the M60A1 and A3 tanks.
Although the US Army chose not to pursue the installation of a new power pack or suspension system in the M60 series, General Dynamics formed a co-operative private venture with Telledyne Continental to develop an upgrade. After initial tests, additional modifications were applied, featuring an armor upgrade intended to increase protection from shaped charged projectiles. The torsion bar suspension system of the M60 was replaced with the National Waterlift hydropneumatic suspension system HSS.
The hull armor is enhanced with a layer of laminated steel armor panels covering the frontal arc of the hull. A pair of steel track skirts were added as well as Kevlar spall liners for the fighting compartment. It has a crew of 4, the commander, loader and gunner are positioned in the turret and the driver in the front of the hull. The M19 cupola was replaced with a low silhouette model with a pop-up hatch for the commander and a The prototype built did not have an optical range finder but one could have been easily installed.
Even though this update package offered M60 users an opportunity to dramatically increase the combat capabilities of their tank fleets, no country ever bought the update, and the program effectively ceased by the end of the Cold War. Only one prototype was built. The overall failure of the Super 60 Program was likely due to the lack of immediate necessity for such a vehicle. The development of the M was primarily due to the large number of M60 Main Battle Tanks in service with many Middle Eastern nations unable to afford a sufficient force of more modern main battle tanks.
The upgrade was marketed at those M60 users with the industrial capability to convert the tanks themselves. It was first referred to the M Program and design work began in late by General Dynamics Land Systems as a private venture for the export market and was never evaluated for US military service. Later the M60 designation was dropped because of the extensive changes and to highlight this as a new vehicle to potential customers thus changing the name to the S Project. Following customer feedback, detailed engineering work was carried out and in December GDLS decided to build a functional prototype.
The Egyptian Army was considering this offer until it was finally rejected in favor of a licensed contract to build M1s in Egypt. As of early there were no sales of the S MBT and was no longer mentioned in General Dynamics marketing literature. The prototype was disassembled and the hull and turret returned to the US Army in The system consists of an eye safe laser rangefinder, second generation night sight, digital ballistic computer, cant sensors and a MIL-STD data bus.
The M10 ballistic drive is upgraded with a fully electrical superelevation resolver. Survivability is improved through the addition of various modular armor protection scheme for both the M60's turret and hull. The upgrades include armor protection with STANAG Level 6 protection plates to the frontal arc, passive and reactive armor panels and side skirts and slat armor added to the bustle, protecting the rear of the turret from RPG attack. The protection scheme can be reconfigured to changing threat conditions. It also has a 12 tube High Speed Directed Launcher HSDL smoke screen system using a multi-spectral smoke hardxill providing protection against thermal detection.
Some of the upgrades included passive spaced armor packages, IR jammers and an ammunition containment system for the turret bustle. It has been marketed for export to nations that need the performance improvements to take on modern armor threats. The SLEP is offered as a collection of modular upgrades for the tank's firepower, mobility, and protection. This allows for SLEP customization to each user's needs. It is fitted with a load assist system allowing for a firing rate of 6 to 10 rounds per minute and 20 ready-rounds in the turret bustle.
The installation of an Automatic Fire and Explosion Sensing and Suppressing system AFSS that improves soldier survivability and protects the engine compartment as standard. Upgraded armor protection with STANAG Level 6 protection plates to the frontal arc and side skirts and slat armor added to the bustle, protecting the rear of the turret from RPG attack. These changes increased the vehicle weight to tons. The upgrade is intended to offer nations already operating the M60 an upgrade to their vehicles to offer capabilities more in line with third-generation main battle tanks.
The old commander's cupola is completely removed and replaced instead with an armored circular ballistic plate protected with slat armor. This also offers a weight reduction compared to the original M19 cupola as used on the M60A3 Patton. The rest of the vehicle is completely overhauled including the torsion bars, brakes, fuel supply, electric system, wheels, seals, paint, and smoke grenades. IED jamming systems and a laser warning receiver systems developed by Leonardo are optionally offered.
Armor improvements include a whole new passive protection suite fitted around the M60's existing cast armor turret and hull that is claimed to meet STANAG Level 6 standards. Protection for the turret is optimized for protection against kinetic energy KE weapons and artillery across the frontal arc. The hull to is upgraded to the same standard with the protection covering the hull sides extending to the third roadwheel. For the rear of the turret, slat armor is provided with an emphasis on protecting against the RPGs. Mobility is improved via either a full refurbishment of the existing power packs or an upgrade.
Fifteen of the early examples of the M60 produced had insufficient hull armor thickness, and were therefore used by the Armor School at Fort Knox to train tank crewmembers and maintenance personnel. The M was used in fire support, base security, counter ambush fire, direct assault of fortified positions, and limited reconnaissance by fire. The AVLB provided gap crossing capabilities when required to support armored forces. M60 tanks participated in Operation Urgent Fury in G Company subsequently overwhelmed the Grenadian defenders at Fort Frederick.
M60s have been used in close air support trials with the F in the s. It was planned that using the MBTs would allow the EOD crews to remove unexploded ordnance from tarmac runway and taxiway surfaces with increased safety. The division commander Maj. During this engagement the Marines destroyed an additional 46 enemy vehicles and took approximately POWs.
The Marines destroyed 30 to 40 Iraqi T tanks which had taken up defensive positions around the airport. They were knocked out by TOWs at long range. Except for a small number in service for training, most M60s were placed in reserve, some 1, were transferred to NATO allies from to under the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and some were sold, mainly to Middle Eastern countries. They were finally declared as excess to US needs in They were given to a few nations under governmental grants.
The large number of M60 series tanks still in the Army's CONUS inventory in were declared as excess to requirements and disposal of them began through grant programs or demilitarization at additional costs to the US government. Many are on public display in parks and museums or veteran service organizations as well as gate guards at military bases. Some M60s are to be placed as artificial reefs off New Jersey and the Gulf coasts of Florida and Alabama accessible to scuba divers.
Tanks portal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see M60 disambiguation. American second generation main battle tank. M60 : 3. Main article: M Main Battle Tank. See also: M60 Patton non-US operators. Government Accountability 6 August Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 12 December Archived from the original on Retrieved Archived from the original on 19 April Jane's Armour and Artillery: — 26th ed. Washington, D. Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 1 June Archived PDF from the original on Defense Technical Information Center.
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Technlical Report No. Accession Number: AD Retrieved 9 September Tank Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original on 18 October Military Tracked Vehicles. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 19 August Archived from the original on 20 August Armored Forces. George F. Hofmann, Donn A. Navato, CA: Presidio Press, pp. Archived from the original on 27 March Navato, CA: Presidio Press, p. Charles, MO: Sabot. Committee on Armed Services Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 19 February Duesseldorf, Germany: Andreas Hueger.
Archived from the original on 2 October World Defense. Archived from the original on 3 November Archived from the original on 23 September The U. National Archives. Archived from the original on 15 December Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 11 September M60 Tank Parts.
Archived from the original on 17 December Marines in the Persian Gulf, With the 1st U. Military Forces. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 18 June Stars and Stripes.
The Illustrated Directory of Tanks of the World. Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 19 March US Army. Archived PDF from the original on 21 December Retrieved 17 December This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Mashregh News in Persian. Tehran, Iran.
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